With the end of 2019, the world faced a pandemic that shook the lives of each and every people around the globe. The coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2 and Covid-19, had made life miserable and isolated. And nowadays, people are waiting for Coronavirus Vaccine to be available in their country.
It’s been almost a year since everyone is jailed in their home. This is the first time in many years everything was shut down. No one went to the office, school, or college. Everyone was just waiting for the cure.
As time went by, cases increased with significant numbers, and scientists were on their way to get the solution – coronavirus vaccine. After many trials and failures, finally, few countries managed to get the vaccine.
Here on HealthClubFinder, we aim to provide you with the coronavirus latest updates. As there will be any news or updates on the new vaccine, we will update it on this blog.
The period between March to December was positive as well as negative. Many countries faced the second wave of coronavirus with 10,000+ positive cases in a day. At the same time, few companies managed to clear the Phase-III trial and moved ahead for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval.
As of 07th January 2021, there are around 87 million cases worldwide. The highest cases are recorded in the United States with 23.1 million, and next is India with 10.4 million cases. While the United States has increasing coronavirus cases day-by-day, the fall in the number of new cases is seen in India.
Now let’s read the information about the coronavirus vaccine, its news, and the latest updates.
How Many Coronavirus Vaccines Are Successfully Developed Worldwide?
As of January 2021, there are around 100+ coronavirus vaccine candidates from around the world. Out of which, the FDA has approved three vaccines by now, and that is Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna, and Sinopharm. Also, 27 vaccines are in Phase-III trials. All the other vaccines are either at the preclinical or Phase-I or II trials.
On What Basis the COVID-19 Vaccines are Developed?
At first, the coronavirus vaccine was developed on an RNA model. The RNA model vaccine will boost the human body’s immune system, allowing it to fight the SARS-CoV-2. Scientists accepted the mRNA model due to the unstable genome of COVID that kept mutating notoriously. In short, most of the coronavirus vaccines are focusing on increasing the immune system of human beings.
What is the Coronavirus Vaccine Testing Process?
No matter what kind of vaccine is prepared, a specific testing process needs to be followed. The same is in the COVID-19 vaccine. Typically developing a vaccine consumes years and years, but the situation this time is different.
Waiting for years was not possible. We can literally lose more than half of the entire world’s population. So to speed up the process, scientists around the world gave more than their best. You can see the results practically in the news. We already have three vaccines that are approved by FDA and around 27 in the Phase-III trials.
Within one and half-year, we reached here. According to WHO, by the mid of year 2021, the vaccination process will start in most countries. However, the WHO has also rolled out the news that COVID-19 vaccines won’t be 100% effective. FDA will approve a vaccine with a minimum of 50% effectiveness.
So here’s the brief information on different stages of the vaccine testing process:
After developing a vaccine, the first step is to try them on the animals and see their effects. As of now, there are around 86 vaccines in the preclinical trials.
Once the vaccine shows a positive result in the preclinical trials, it moves towards the Phase-I trial. Here scientists inject the vaccine in a small group of people. They notice the changes in them and analyze whether it is safe or not!
After clearing the Phase-I trials, the vaccine is injected into a group of hundreds of people. These groups are differentiated based on age – youth and elderly. Here the safety of the vaccine and the amount of immunity stimulation is analyzed.
If there’s any major side-effect of the vaccine on the human body, that can lead to permanent disease like cancer or death. There will be a red signal to the vaccine. It won’t be able to move further to the phase-III trials.
The next step is the Phase-III trial; as the vaccine clears the stages one after one, the difficulty level increases. In the Phase-III trial, the vaccine is given to thousands of people all over the world. Here the groups are youth, the elderly, people with serious medical histories, and many more.
FYI: The FDA has advised at least a 50% efficacy rate of coronavirus vaccine at phase-III trials to move ahead for Approval.
There will be an analysis of the vaccine based on its effect on each of them. In Phase-III trials, a specific group of volunteers is injected with the vaccine and others with a placebo. This trial has expanded the period – enough to reveal the rare side effects of the vaccine on the human body.
Approval (Final Stage):
As soon as the vaccine clears the Phase-III trials, the results are then forwarded to the country’s Regulators. They will study the effects and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not! In the case of a pandemic, emergency use authorization is given to the vaccine before the formal approval.
Even after getting licensed, the eye is kept on the persons receiving the vaccine to ensure its safety & effectiveness.
Also, if the vaccine had any abnormal reactions at any stage, the vaccine trials are put on a pause. After a proper investigation in the matter, it is either resumed or abandoned.
Other than the above stages, there’s one more stage known as ‘early or limited approval.’ This one is the rushed approval, and experts don’t advise doing this. It has a higher and severe risk of back-firing.
For a more speedy process, the WHO has approved the combined phase trials. Here the Pase-I and II trials are conducted at the same time. In short, the vaccine is tested on hundreds of people directly.
Latest Coronavirus Vaccine Updates
Here comes the real information (and the one you are waiting for the longest time). In this section, we have mentioned the detailed information about the vaccines that are ‘Approved’ and are at ‘Phase-III trials.’
Note: We will update this article once a week with the latest coronavirus vaccine update. Make sure you subscribe and bookmark the webpage for getting the updates regularly.
Approved Coronavirus Vaccines:
Vaccine Name: Comirnaty
Company: Pfizer and BioNTech
The very first FDA-approved vaccine is BNT162b2 by Pfizer and BioNTech. The vaccine has shown more than 90% efficiency, which is an excellent thing in itself. In January 2020, Germany-based company BioNTech started to research and design the mRNA-based vaccine. In March, it partnered with a New York-based company, Pfizer, to scale-up the process, and In April, they launched the clinical trial of the vaccine.
In December 2020, it completed its phase-III trial and got approval from FDA too. As of now, the efficiency of the vaccine is at 95% with two doses. It is a muscle injection taken at an interval of three weeks. However, it requires freezer storage at –94° F (–70° C).
Canada has approved Pfizer’s vaccine. Also, it received clearance for emergency use in the U.S., U.K., and U.A.E. The company has estimated the manufacturing of 1.3 billion doses worldwide by the end of 2021.
Update: Many countries like Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kuwait, Mexico, Panama, and Singapore have given emergence or full approval to the Comirnaty. Along with them came the authorization from Bahrain, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland.
Vaccine Name: mRNA-1273
Country: United States
The next vaccine that might get approval is mRNA-1273 of Moderna. As per information, it has already applied for FDA approval on 30th November. On 2nd December, it registered for a vaccine trial on children between 12 to 18 years.
The Moderna’s vaccine focuses on creating a coronavirus protein named Spike, which will provoke the immune system’s response to fight with the coronavirus. Many countries have already signed the contract of getting a vaccine once approved.
On December 18th, the Moderna received early authorization in the U.S, and on 23rd it was Approved in Canada for use, becoming the second one to get the approval from F.D.A.
The efficiency of the vaccine is recorded at 94.5% with two doses, four weeks apart. It can be stored at –4° F (–20° C) for six months after refrigeration of 30 days. It is also in the form of muscle injection.
Update: On January 4th, Israel gave Emergence Use to the Moderna and on January 6th European Medical Agency also joined. Also on Jan. 4th, the 18 million doses of coronavirus vaccine reached the U.S.
Vaccine Name: BBIBP-CorV
Chinese-based company Sinopharm developed a vaccine in a partnership with the Beijing Institute of Biological Products. The results of phase 1 and 2 trials were satisfactory. It created the perfect amount of antibodies against the coronavirus and had no severe side effects as well.
It started the phase 3 trials in the United Arab Emirates in July. After that, Morocco and Peru joined the trials in the following months. The emergency approval was given to the Sinopharm’s vaccine in September. Within two months, it was approved by the U.A.E government (but with no proper explanation). The vaccine is 86% effective with two doses three weeks apart. It is also a muscle injection.
On December 13, the neighboring country of Bahrain also gave full approval to the Sinopharm’s vaccine after participating in the trials. (Again with no announcement from their side.)
Update: On 3rd January, Egypt also gave emergency authorization for the vaccine.
Coronavirus Vaccines on Phase-III Trials:
Vaccine Name: Sputnik 5
Company: Gamaleya Institute
The Gamaleya Institute of Russia developed a vaccine from two types of adenoviruses, namely Ad5 and Ad26. Scientists have used these both viruses in many vaccines over the years. Together these viruses will make the immune system recognize foreign objects and destroy the needed ones.
This vaccine has gained early use in Russia, even before the start of Phase-III trials. It completed its phase 1 and 2 trials with promising results. After vaccine experts considered the move as risky, the Russian government walked back on the decision and clarified that it is a conditional registration approval. It will depend on the positive results of Phase-III trials.
It has an efficiency rate of 91.4% with the two doses three weeks apart. It is a muscle injection, and freezer storage is needed. The company is working on an alternative formulation that can be refrigerated for its long term use. Russia has decided to start its Phase-III trials with over 40,000 volunteers as candidates, which was later reduced to 31,000 only.
Updates: In December, Gamaleya Institue and AstraZeneca decided to combine their vaccines and see if it provides stronger protection. The Phase-1 trial of the combination took place on 24th December.
On December 26th, there was a tweet from the Gamaleya Institute that the vaccine has shown around 90% efficiency in people over the age of 60.
Vaccine Name: AG0302-COVID19
Company: AnGes, Osaka University, and Takara Bio
The Japanese biotechnology company Anges developed a vaccine in collaboration with Osaka University and Takara Bio. In June, it completed the Phase 1 trial and moved to the phase 2/3 trial in December.
We don’t have much information about its efficiency, but its dosage is two doses two weeks apart. It is a subcutaneous (skin) injection and can be stored at room temperature for over a year.
Vaccine Name: Ad26.COV2.S
Company: Johnson & Johnson and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Country: United States
Where every vaccine settled for two doses, Ad26.COV2.S focused on injecting only one dose. This vaccine is developed by Johnson & Johnson (J&J) in partnership with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC). J&J has invented vaccines for Ebola and other diseases with Ad26 and BIDMC is the one who developed the method of making vaccines with Ad26 over a decade ago.
The company received massive support from the US government in developing the coronavirus vaccine. It completed its preclinical and phase -1/2 trials in July and moved towards the Phase-III trials. The results of Phase-3 trials are due in January. On 16th November, the company announced the launching of second phase 3 trials with two doses to see its effects.
The vaccine can be frozen and stored at –4° F for up to two years and refrigerated at 36–46° F for three months.
Vaccine Name: AZD1222
Company: AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford
AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford collaborated to develop a vaccine. Early in the pandemic, they started the research and did the preclinical trials on monkeys. They didn’t see coronavirus affecting them.
In April, they moved to the Phase 1/2 trial, whose result was safe. Experts found it generates antibodies against the coronavirus and other diseases. After that, phase 3 trials began in the U.K, India, Brazil, South Africa, and the United States.
AstraZeneca had to halt the trials in October, as a volunteer experienced a form of inflammation called transverse myelitis. Within a week, the trials resumed everywhere except the U.S.A. A volunteer in Brazil died because of a coronavirus, but there was no answer from the company. Hence, it was assumed that he was a placebo receiver.
AstraZeneca’s vaccine has about 90% efficiency with two doses, four weeks apart. It is a muscle injection and can stay stable in the refrigerator for around six months.
On December 26th, Pascal Soriot, the Chief Executive of AstraZeneca, told Sunday Times about its high efficiency and 100% protection against severe diseases.
Update: On December 30th, Britain authorized Oxford AstraZeneca’s for emergency use. Later on India, Argentia, and Mexico on Jan. 3rd and 4th.
Vaccine Name: NVX-CoV2373
Country: United States
The vaccine developed by the Maryland-based company, Novavax is according to its own style of developing vaccines. The company has taken over many diseases by sticking proteins into the microscopic particles.
In May, the company announced its clinical trials of the Covid-19 vaccine. It also successfully completed the Phase 2 trials and now has moved on to the Phase 3 trials. The company has made an agreement with India and U.S.A to deliver the vaccines in the first quarter of 2021 if it gets approval.
Its efficiency is still unknown, but there will be two doses, three weeks apart. It can stay stable in the refrigerator and is a muscle injection, just like most vaccines.
Update: The Novavax began its Phase-III trials in the United States.
Vaccine Name: CoVLP
Company: Medicago & GSK
Medicago has developed a plant-based coronavirus vaccine in collaboration with GSK. the company grows vaccines in a plant called Nicotiana benthamiana by delivering virus genes into leaves, then plant shells create a protein-like structure.
The Medicago launched its phase-1 trial and succeeded with great safety. On 12th November, it announced its phase 2/3 trials. The Canadian government has booked around 76 million doses of the CoVLP vaccine.
Vaccine Name: ZF2001
Company: Anhui Zhifei Longcom and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
For developing this vaccine, the Anhui Zhifei Longcom shook hands with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The vaccine created has adjuvant and the spike protein, which is known as the receptor-binding domain. The phase 3 trials of ZF2001 started in December.
Vaccine Name: Covaxin
Company: Indian Council of Medical Research, Bharat Biotech, and the National Institute of Virology
India’s first developed coronavirus vaccine is Covaxin, which is based on the inactivated form of Coronavirus. Bharat Biotech created this vaccine in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology.
It cleared its combined trials of phase 1 and 2 with excellent efficiency. The results are yet to be revealed, but around 85 volunteers out of 90 generated the antibodies against the coronavirus as per the sources.
The phase 3 trials of Covaxin started in October, and results are expected to be out in the early months of 2021. One can store this vaccine at room temperature for at least a week. There will be two doses two weeks apart as part of vaccination.
Update: On January 3rd, the Indian Government authorized Covaxin for Emergency Use in India.
Vaccine Name: BRACE
Company: Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
The vaccine that Murdoch Children’s Research Institute is trying was made in the 1900s to protect against tuberculosis. The institute is at Phase 3 trial to see if it can partly protect against the coronavirus. Sadly, we weren’t able to gather any more information about this vaccine.
Vaccine Name: CVnCoV
Germany based company CureVac launched its clinical trials in July after testing and seeing its effects in mice. In March, the company was approached to move its research on mRNA to the United States under the Trump administration, but it was an unsuccessful trial. It continued with its clinical trials and in December it started its Phase-3 trials in Germany with 36,500 volunteers.
The efficiency is still unknown, but the dosage is two muscle injections, four weeks apart. The CureVac vaccine can stay stable at 63 to 46-degree Fahrenheit for at least 3-months.
Vaccine Name: S-Trimer COVID-19 Vaccine
Company: Clover Biopharmaceuticals, GSK, and Dynavax
The China-based Clover Biopharmaceuticals developed a vaccine of spike protein from Coronaviruses. Together with GSK and Dynavax, the company is testing the adjuvants f both drugmakers. With the help of investments from CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations), it can manufacture billions of doses in a year.
The vaccine’s formula of Clover seems to store the vaccine at room temperature for a month. It launched the phase1 trial in June. It declared its combined phase of 2 and 3 trials to start by the end of 2020. The result of phase-1 trials showed the generation of antibodies at a high level.
Vaccine Name: QazCovid
Company: Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems
During summer, the Research Institute of Biological Safety Problems developed a coronavirus vaccine and entered clinical trials in August. On December 19th it completed the phase-2 trials with promising immune response and safe results.
The company stated that it has started the phase-III trials and if everything goes as planned and safely, it will receive the approval and start vaccination by March 2021. The production capacity of the vaccine manufacturing plant is about 60 million doses per year.
Vaccine Name: ZyCoV-D
Company: Zydus Cadila
Another covid-19 vaccine from India is from Zydus Cadila. The formulation of the vaccine is based on DNA and a skin injection. In August, it started its phase 2 trial, which ended in December. On January 3rd, the Indian Government gave it a green signal to move forward to the Phase-III trials with 30,000 volunteers. The company’s chairman said they are planning to finish the phase-3 trials and get the vaccine ready for distribution by the end of March 2021.
Vaccines That Have Gained Early or Limited Approval:
Vaccine Name: Convidecia Ad5-nCoV
The CanSinoBio developed a coronavirus vaccine based on adenovirus (Ad5) in partnership with the Chinese Military. It completed its phase 1 trial in July and moved to phase 2 trial. The Phase-II trial results were promising and reliable, looking at which it gained limited use in China from the Chinese military. It has started its Phase three trial in Saudi Arabia, Russia, and Pakistan.
Vaccine Name: EpiVacCorona
Company: Bektop Vector Institute
Another Russian vaccine from the Bektop Vector Institute is created based on small viral proteins known as peptides. It has already cleared the combined trials of phase-½, and the phase 3 trial will begin later this year. Just like Sputnik-5, it has also gained early use in Russia.
The phase-III trials of the Vaccine began in November. According to Interfax News Agency, on December 15th, around 1438 volunteers received the vaccine with no undesirable consequences.
Vaccine Name: CoronaVac
Company: Sinovac Biotech
Sinovac Biotech is a private Chinese company that developed an inactivated coronavirus vaccine with the name CoronaVac. It started the phase 1/2 trials in June and had safe and effective results with the generation of a modest amount of antibodies. Stage 3 trials have already started, and it will only provide whether it is safe or not.
The trials in Brazil were brought to halt due to the adverse event, but later it was resumed. The results of the Phase 3 trial of Sinovac’s vaccine is expected on 15th December. The dosage of the vaccine is two muscle injections two weeks apart.
Update: On December 23rd, Brazil reported the efficiency of vaccines at up to 50%, and Turkey said 91% effectiveness the other day. The detailed report of combined phase-3 trial results is expected to come out in January from Sinovac’s side.
Track the Coronavirus Vaccine Progress:
So here’s all the information you need to know about the coronavirus vaccine tracker. Stay tuned with us for the weekly updates. Also, don’t feel happy if the approved section gets more vaccines registered in it. You still have to take care of yourself until the risk is eradicated.
Here on our website, you will find information about all the health-related issues, be it chronic viral fever or very rare or severe diseases, like cancer. Just make sure to subscribe to HealthclubFinder’s newsletter and follow us on our social media platforms.
And Yes, Happy New Year Everyone! Hope this year brings lots of happiness and positivity in everyone’s life.
Make this statement your life’s mantra till everything gets back to very very very normal: Stay Healthy and Stay Safe! Wear masks and sanitize yourself properly!
Stay Healthy and Stay Safe! Wear masks and sanitize yourself properly!